Experimental design is the process of planning, conducting, analyzing, and interpreting controlled experiments. It involves carefully manipulating one or more independent variables to observe the effect on a dependent variable while controlling for extraneous variables that could influence the results. The goal of experimental design is to establish cause-and-effect relationships between variables in order to test a hypothesis.
An experimental design should have a clear and precise research question, a well-defined sample, a control group, a randomization process, a clear manipulation of the independent variable, a reliable measurement of the dependent variable, and a proper data analysis plan.
Sometimes it is not possible to run an experiment. In these cases, look for where the world has provided you with one—a so-called “natural experiment.” A natural experiment is a type of observational study in which the independent variable is not controlled by the researcher. Instead, the independent variable is determined by naturally occurring events or circumstances. The goal of a natural experiment is to observe the effect of a natural variation in the independent variable on a dependent variable while controlling for extraneous variables.
For example, a natural experiment might examine the effect of a natural disaster on mental health outcomes. In this case, the independent variable (the natural disaster) is not controlled by the researcher, and the dependent variable (mental health outcomes) is measured after the disaster has occurred. The researcher would control for extraneous variables, such as prior mental health conditions, by selecting a sample that is representative of the affected population.
Natural experiments have the advantage of using real-world events and conditions, which can provide insight into the causal relationship between variables. However, they also have limitations, such as the lack of control over the independent variable and the potential for confounds that cannot be controlled. Therefore, the results of a natural experiment should be interpreted with caution and should be validated through further research, including controlled experiments.
To design an experiment to test a hypothesis, follow these steps:
Draw conclusions and make recommendations: Based on the results of the experiment, draw conclusions about the relationship between the variables and make recommendations for future research.